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There are many forms of periodontal disease. The most common ones include the following.

Gingivitis

Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease. It causes the gums to become red, swollen, and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good at home oral care.

Aggressive Periodontitis

A form of periodontitis that occurs in patients who are otherwise clinically healthy. Common features include rapid attachment loss and bone destruction and familial aggregation.

Chronic Periodontitis

A form of periodontal disease resulting in inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment and bone loss and is characterized by pocket formation and/or recession of the gingiva. It is recognized as the most frequently occurring form of periodontitis. It is prevalent in adults, but can occur at any age. Progression of attachment loss usually occurs slowly, but periods of rapid progression can occur.

Periodontitis as a Manifestation of Systemic Diseases

Periodontitis, often with onset at a young age, associated with one of several systemic diseases, such as diabetes.

Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases

An infection characterized by necrosis of gingival tissues, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. These lesions are most commonly observed in individuals with systemic conditions including, but not limited to, HIV infection, malnutrition and immunosuppression.


Diagnosis

Sometimes the only way to detect periodontal disease is through a periodontal evaluation. This may be especially important in the following situations:

If you notice any symptoms of periodontal disease, including:

  • gums that bleed easily, such as during brushing or flossing
  • red, swollen or tender gums
  • gums that have pulled away from the teeth
  • persistent bad breath
  • pus between the teeth and gums
  • loose or separating teeth
  • a change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite

If you have a family member with periodontal disease.

Research suggests that the bacteria that cause periodontal disease can pass through saliva. This means the common contact of saliva in families puts children and couples at risk for contracting the periodontal disease of another family member.

If you have heart disease, diabetes, respiratory disease or osteoporosis.

Ongoing research is showing that periodontal disease may be linked to these conditions. The bacteria associated with periodontal disease can travel into the blood stream and pose a threat to other parts of the body. Healthy gums may lead to a healthier body.


Treatment of Periodontal Disease

If you’re diagnosed with periodontal disease, we may recommend periodontal surgery. Periodontal surgery is necessary when it is determined that the tissue around your teeth is unhealthy and cannot be repaired with non-surgical treatment. Following are the four types of surgical treatments most commonly prescribed:

  • Pocket Reduction Procedures
  • Regenerative Procedures
  • Crown Lengthening
  • Soft Tissue Grafts

If you’ve already lost a tooth to periodontal disease, you may be interested in dental implants – the permanent tooth replacement option.